In this video, we will talk about the archeological excavation area and its history in the 1st courtyard of Topkapı Palace, at the foot of Hagia Sophia. The entrance was forbidden, but I took the risk to promote this place to you. I hope you like the video. Good looks. It is located on the 1st side of the Topkapi Palace, on the back side of the Hagia Eirene. These archaeological remains may be the remains of the Episcopal Palace. The old police station is located next to the excavation area. The old police station is unnoticed by most people as it is located between Hagia Irene and the Palace Walls. The remains of the Eastern Roman Empire were believed to belong to the Sampson Hospital until recently. In the recent excavations, the opinion that it belongs to the Episcopal Palace has gained weight. The area was covered with garbage and vegetation and in 1940s the ruins were uncovered by a non-scientific study led by the Directorate of Hagia Sophia Museum. The remains were thought to belong to Sampson Hospital and this opinion was accepted for many years without any further work. After the excavations in 1940s, the remains that were left to their fate were again covered with garbage and vegetation. The area was cleaned again and a new excavation was carried out in 2009. This excavation was carried out in 2009 with the modern technique and it was determined that it belonged to the Episcopal Palace. The remains are still covered with vegetation since adequate protection measures are not taken. You know how important the Hagia Sophia is. Aya Irini, located at the foot of the excavation area, is an older building than Hagia Sophia. This excavation area, located at the foot of Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene, is not such an ordinary excavation site. The structures here are not ordinary structures. All very important and very valuable. In the excavations carried out by Istanbul Archaeological Museums and Istanbul University and Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University in 2009, the remains were cleaned and brought to light again, and as a result of the investigations, it was suggested that the remains belonged to the Episcopal Palace, not the Sampson Hospital. The building was probably linked to Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene. Transitions from the structure to the Aya Irini, the gallery floor and the courtyard were determined. Moreover, the remains were in a single courtyard together with Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene, and they were all surrounded by a large perimeter wall. The fact that the Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene were together as a single structure and called the Great Church of strengthens the possibility that this structure which is located between the two is a part of the church. The fact that the building was built at the same time as Hagia Sophia and Hagia Eirene and that Aya Irini was the Episcopal Church supported the claim that the ruins belonged to the Episcopal Palace. The Sampson Hospital is thought to be somewhere outside the walls. Probably today it may be the ruins under the Green House used as Turing Guest House or the cistern in Soğukçeşme Street. The excavations revealed that the building’s components vary from the 4th century to the 15th century. This shows that the building was used for different purposes until the 15th century. Topkapi Palace built after the conquest of Istanbul did not use this structure. Even the fortification walls surrounding Topkapi Palace were built in the middle of the ruins. Probably the walls were being built, this area was filled with soil. Because in historical engravings this area is seen as flat. In later periods, this area was used as a wood warehouse for a while. As a matter of fact,upper layers weights of large scales weighing wood were found. Again in the layers of the Ottoman period marble-like tracks found. This shows that one of the two dead washing places of Topkapı Palace is probably here. As deeper layers were reached, many pieces of Eastern Roman artifacts and earthenware pots were found. these items are called Keramik. Keramik is a general name given to various earthenware used in daily work. Here a piece of fountain with a lion-shaped groove was found. This piece is thought to belong to the Great Roman Empire, from the period before Eastern Rome. We also found some mosaic here. But even more interesting is the presence of flint parts. Flintstones used in instruments of prehistoric periods or used in the instruments of that period or as ornament in the late Middle Ages, it is thought to be used for inlay work. However, certain information on these findings has not yet been reached. The oldest finds are the column body of the ancient Greek period and some materials belonging to the bronze age. Considering that the area where the remains are located is the acropolis in the Byzantium period, there are many other remains of Byzantium and Hellenistic periods. There are many temples in the Byzantium acropolis. Before Istanbul became the capital of the Roman Empire, the local people believed that a mythological creature called Artemis was protecting this place and there was a temple on the acropolis in the name of Artemis. During the Pagan period, the young girls who were engaged were wearing a red stripe in their waist and came to this temple, where they loosened the girdle and believed that they could give a painless birth. Due to this tradition, the Temple of Artemis was also called the Belt Loosen Temple. The temple of Artemis is estimated to be under this archaeological excavation site. Of course, without making a deep excavation, these estimates cannot be verified. It is also known that the Thrako-Phrygian tribes came to Istanbul before Byzantium. In the excavations carried out in Yenikapı, these tribes have been proven to have been in this geography much earlier than Byzantium. Whether the building remains belong to Sampson Hospital or the Episcopal Palace, it is understood that the building is one of the most valuable examples of Eastern Roman civilian architecture and that it has an important function in its location. Today, only the foundations of the structure stand. There is also a columned courtyard and a cross icon on the columns. So what is this Sampson Hospital? Who is this Sampson? Let’s take a brief look at this. The hospital took its name from the hospitable Sampson, a saint who dedicated himself to serving the poor. Sampson was born in Rome as a child of a noble family. He is a well-known doctor who helps the poor. He turned his house into a free clinic. Here, he offered his patients food and accommodation and medical treatment. He was later ordained by the Patriarch as a priest. When Emperor 1st Justinian was sick, Sampson was the only physician who could heal the emperor among the doctors in the city. When asked to be rewarded by the emperor, he called for help in setting up a hospital serving the poor in the city. Thus Sampson who received the support of Justinian was able to establish his hospital in the 6th century. This hospital, an important health institution of its time, was the largest free health institution in the Eastern Roman Empire and served the people of Constantinople for 600 years. The hospitable Sampson died in 530, after working for a while at the new and grand hospital. Our knowledge of Sampson Hospital about is very limited. The first build date of the hospital is unknown, but shortly after the death of Sampson, during the Nika Rebellion in 532, Sampson Hospital along with the Hagia Irene and Hagia Sophia is known to be burned. Justinian suppressed the revolt and restored the hospital in the same year and re-opened. The new Sampson Hospital was built as a complex with the Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene. Hospital and churches served by the same clergy. In 532, Jüstinyen, who also removed the traditional folk medicine, assigned these physicians to church hospitals such as Sampson Hospital. The hospital which continued to serve until the 12th century unknown why it was closed. In the future you can go to see if this excavation area will be opened to visit. We’re not allowed in here right now. Remember to like, share and subscribe to my video. Thanks for watching.