David J. Skorton Lecture: How STEM and the Liberal Arts Nourish Each Other

David J. Skorton Lecture: How STEM and the Liberal Arts Nourish Each Other


(gentle music) (crowd applauding) – Good evening and welcome
to Hancher Auditorium. My name is John Keller
and I have the privilege serving as the Associate
Provost for Graduate Professional Education and
Dean of the Graduate College at the University of Iowa. Thank you all for joining us this evening in this outstanding facility as we celebrate the return
of Secretary Skorton and Dr. Davison to the U of I campus. Tonight, we gather to
explore the relationship between the sciences and the liberal arts and to celebrate the vital
role of graduate education in supporting these endeavors. While our esteemed
guests will be your guide through many of the
intersections this evening, through the arts, through
research, through medicine, technology, and education,
I hope you’ll also let me take a moment to savor and
share with you the role that graduate education
plays in this puzzle. Graduate students at
the University of Iowa and at universities across the country are currently pushing the
boundaries of disciplinary knowledge and helping
society move forward. Drawn to graduate school
because of their interest in complex, multi-dimensional problems, graduate students work at the
edges of society’s knowledge. They pave the way for many
of the inter-disciplinary relationships, fresh perspectives, and new learning that you
will hear about tonight. For that reason, we’d
like to begin our evening with a brief interlude and an
opportunity for you to hear from some of our current
University of Iowa students. Three students and two faculty members that I’ll introduce to you tonight, a biomedical engineer
making computer models of surgeries to improve outcomes, a social worker using technology
to combat teen suicide, and musicians weaving
ingenious jazz riffs, represent just a small
piece of the innovation in graduate education at our institution. Following these short performances, it’ll be my privilege to
introduce our honorable guest, the 13th Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution, Dr. David J. Skorton. Our first presentations
tonight feature the winners of our recent three-minute
thesis competition. This competition charges
and challenges students with effectively explaining their research in only three minutes, using
language that’s appropriate to a non-specialist audience,
using only one, single slide. They’re not allowed to use any other props or any other resources.
(audience laughing) Now, I can tell you,
while all the students make this look pretty easy, I assure you that it’s
much harder than it looks. Our first student, Kirsten Stoner, is a fourth-year graduate student in the Department of
Biomedical Engineering, under the mentorship of
Professor Nicole Grossland. She completed her bachelor’s degree in mechanical and aerospace engineering and master’s degree in
biomedical engineering at Cornell University. Her research focuses on utilizing finite element modeling of
the neck and the spinal cord to better understand spinal cord mechanics in diseased and operated states. Now, her research, her
presentation tonight is appropriate in titled, A Pain in the Neck: Modeling
Cervical Myelopathy. Kirsten. (crowd applauding) – Thank you, Dean Keller. So as Dean Keller said,
I’m Kirsten Stoner, I’m a biomedical engineering student, a PhD student in Dr.
Nicole Grossman’s lab. So Iowa City is a big football town, and I’m sure that many of
you Peyton Manning fans have semi-sweet feelings
about his retirement. Well, I study the same neck injury that led to Peyton Manning’s retirement. It’s called cervical myelopathy and it’s the most common
form of spinal cord injury. It occurs when a patient’s
spinal cord is compressed as they move their head back and forth by either bony or soft tissue. On the MRI behind me, we can see a patient
with cervical myelopathy. On the left, his head is at
a straight, neutral position, and on the right, his
head is tilted backwards. What you can see is how thin
this patient’s spinal cord becomes as he tilts his
head and neck backwards. Cervical myelopathy is
extremely debilitating. First, these patients
feel pains in their neck, and then they lose feeling in their hands, and then, as the injury progresses, they can actually lose
their ability to walk. So what’s this means is that
patients can’t get around easily or do simple tasks
like buttoning their shirts. The only way to stop the
progression of this injury is to have a surgery that
decompresses the spinal cord, but the problem is that
there are multiple different surgeries a patient could have and no one really
understands how each of these surgery techniques affects
spinal cord compression. So this means that sometimes,
just like in Peyton Manning’s case, the first surgery doesn’t work well, and these patients don’t have
relief of their symptoms, so this means they might
have to go back for a second, third, or even fourth surgery, and each of these surgeries
is extremely dangerous and very expensive for the patients. But what if we could know beforehand, before the surgery
happens, how each of these surgical techniques affects
spinal cord compression? That’s exactly what my
research focuses on. I create computer models
of cervical myelopathy that mimics how the spinal cord is compressed during daily motion. You can see on the image
of the computer model how it replicated the
spinal cord compression as the neck is tilted backwards. So then what I can do is incorporate those different surgical
techniques into this model to determine which is actually best at decompressing the spinal cord. This allows surgeons to know
before they ever do a surgery which is actually best at
decompressing the spinal cord, and using a surgery that has
the best predicted outcomes means that patients are
most likely to get relief with their first surgery, reducing the need for
subsequent, risky surgeries. Thank you very much.
(crowd applauding) – Thank you, Kirsten. And I think you can
understand that I’m always a little hesitant to take the mike after any of our students
present their work, and I’m certainly grateful that I’m not in competition with them. So next we will hear from Sarah Knox, and Sarah is a second-year
master’s student in social work here at
the University where she previously completed a
bachelor’s degree in economics. Since 2007, Sarah has
volunteered on the crisis hotline and worked as a trainer of
suicide intervention skills at the crisis center
here in Johnson County. Her research focuses on using
online crisis intervention techniques and how online
counselors can best help individuals who use that resource. The title of Sarah’s presentation is, How Helpful are Specific
Techniques in Online Counseling? Sarah. (crowd applauding) – Statistics show that one in 20 adults thinks about suicide in a given year. When we look at teenagers specifically, that number rises to three out of 20. Try to picture that, a classroom of 25 to 30 high
school students, on average, four of those students is
thinking about suicide. This is a major problem. Historically, teenagers have, are very reticent to call crisis hotlines. However, in the last five years, a number of services have evolved online, and teenagers have been
reaching out to those. So I’m Sarah Knox, and my
focus is on crisis intervention and suicide intervention. CrisisChat specifically holds a very dear place in my heart. CrisisChat allows people
to get on the Internet and type, anonymously,
messages back and forth with a trained volunteer. The median age of visitors
on CrisisChat is 21, which means half of our visitors
are under the age of 21, so we’re exactly hitting
that target of people who most needed the help. Something that’s very exciting about this from a research standpoint is
that we have the transcripts of everything that the visitor says and the helper says to them. We also ask them their
mood at the beginning of the conversation and then
we ask the same question at the end of the conversation. So this allows us to look
at the change that happened as well as the specific things
that were said to the person over the course of that conversation, to see what had the biggest cause in improving that person’s mood. So that, by itself, is very exciting, but there’s actually more as well. That initial survey, when the
person comes onto CrisisChat, also asks their age and
their primary concern. So you may be able to
imagine that somebody who’s 30 years old might
need to be spoken to in a different way than
somebody who’s 13 years old. Somebody who’s having a financial crisis may need a different kind of help than somebody who has an eating disorder. So I’ve been working with the people at the crisis center of Johnson County to come up with categories that we can put the things that helpers say into, things like empathy, advice, we’re actually even counting emoticons. (audience laughing) And we’re going to see what helps us most build that rapport with people, what helps us most calm people down so they feel less suicidal at
the end of that conversation, and our hope is that we
can use this information to tailor training at crisis centers to the type of people
that you’re talking to and that, in the end,
this is going to help us to save even more lives. Thank you.
(audience applauding) – Told you they were awesome.
(audience laughing) Thank you, Sarah, and Sarah’s
work is a perfect example of students working to address
critically important issues in our society, and in our community. So the three-minute thesis competition, let me tell you a little
bit more about that, it featured 16 finalists
and almost 50 individuals that applied for the
competition this year, and all their competition videos
are archived on our website if you would like to learn
more about their work. Now I’m excited to introduce three highly accomplished Iowa musicians. Blake Shaw is a double-bassist, composer, occasional vocalist, band leader, and private lesson
teacher here in Iowa City. Blake received his
bachelor of musics degree in classical double-bass
performance at Iowa and is set to finish his
master of arts degree in jazz performance this upcoming May. Dr. Damani Phillips is a
native of Pontiac, Michigan, where he began playing at
the age of 10 years old. He currently serves as
an assistant professor of jazz studies and
African American studies at the University of
Iowa, where he teaches applied jazz saxophone,
directs jazz combos, and teaches courses in
African American music, jazz education, and improvisation. He has earned a bachelor and
master’s of music degrees from De Paul University and
the University of Kentucky in classical saxophone, and
a second master’s degree of music in jazz studies
from Wayne State University. Damani completed his doctorate
of musical arts degree in jazz studies at the University
of Colorado in Boulder. Steve Grismore has been playing the guitar for almost 50 years. After receiving his bachelor
of music and composition and master of arts and music theory from the University of Iowa, he directed jazz studies from
the U of I from 1990 to 1993, where he is now a
full-time jazz instructor. Steve has a long history of jazz education throughout the state, teaching at both the high
school and college levels. Now, Steve helped co-found
the Iowa City Jazz Festival, which I’m sure many of
you are familiar with, and was named executive
director of the Festival in 1999 and the musical director
of the Festival in 2010. Please join me in welcoming
Blake, Damani, and Steve to the stage.
(crowd applauding) – Good evening, everybody. I’m very happy to say,
after being a student of the University of Iowa since 2010, I’ve made it to Hancher. (crowd laughing and applauding) Okay. To me, art is the most
human thing that I can do and I’m really, really honored to share that experience with people like this, Dr. Damani Phillips
and Professor Grismore, and also to just share that gift with you. We’re going to play a
tune called Tricotism by a bassist named Oscar Pettiford. Unfortunately, Oscar fell in the category of genius jazz musicians
who left us too soon. He passed away in 1960. This tune is a little
difficult, or tricky, Tricotism, as they say, because the bass plays the melody along with the saxophone player. So here’s Tricotism by Oscar Pettiford. One, two, three, four. (“Tricotism” by Oscar Pettiford) (crowd applauding) (crowd applauding) (crowd applauding) (crowd applauding) – Thank you, I’m going to save this. – So thank you, Blake, Damani, and Steve for that amazing performance this evening. Your musical talents just radiated here in the new Hancher. And thanks again to Kirsten and to Sarah for their presentations. Also, I’d be remiss if I
didn’t thank all of you for indulging me in this brief showcase of graduate work here at
the University of Iowa. I’m so proud of the innovative
work that’s taking place on this campus and I just
couldn’t pass up the opportunity to share a little bit
of it with you tonight. Now it’s my distinct privilege to introduce Dr. Javid Day Skorton, David J. Skorton, I keep doing that, (crowd laughing)
and I’m not sure why. I’m sure he’ll have something
to say about that too. (crowd laughing) He’s the 13th Secretary of
the Smithsonian Institute and he assumed this
position in July 1 of 2015. As Secretary, Dr. Skorton
oversees 19 museums, 21 libraries, the National
Zoo, numerous research centers, and several education units and centers. The Smithsonian Institution
is the world’s largest museum, education, and research complex. It’s involved in research and activities in more than 100
countries, and is exploring its first international
gallery presence in London. There are 216 Smithsonian
affiliate museums throughout the country, and
the Institution operates an extensive traveling exhibition program. As Secretary, Dr. Skorton is responsible for an annual budget of
close to $1.5 billion, he’s responsible for over 6,500 employees, 6,300 volunteers, and
7,000 digital volunteers. Dr. Skorton, a
board-certified cardiologist, began his career here at Iowa,
holding joint appointments as a professor of internal medicine, electrical and computer engineering, and biomedical engineering. He also served as Vice
President for Research and for Vice President
for External Relations before becoming the 19th President
of the University of Iowa in 2003 through 2006. He then went on to
become the 12th President of Cornell University from 2006 to 2015. And Dr. Skorton is the first physician to lead the Smithsonian. He’s an ardent and nationally
recognized supporter of the arts and humanities,
and Dr. Skorton has called for a national dialogue to emphasize the importance of funding
for these disciplines. He’s an avid musician who plays
the flute and the saxophone and he worked as a musician
in the Chicago area and co-hosted As Night Falls Latin Jazz, a weekly program on the
University of Iowa’s public FM radio station, KRUI. You may remember some
of those performances. Additionally, Dr. Skorton is a proponent of the business-university partnership. He has been active in innovation
and economic development at the state and the national levels to bring business and
universities together toward diversifying regional economies. Since 1980, he has been part
of a cohort of physicians around the world who specialize in caring for adolescents and adults
with congenital heart disease. At the University of
Iowa, he helped co-found the University’s Adolescent and Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic, and he also helped found the
Society for Adult Congenital Cardiac Disease, now the International
for Society for Adult and Congenital Heart Disease. Dr. Skorton was elected to
the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, now referred to as the
National Academy of Medicine, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is currently a distinguished professor at Georgetown University. And Dr. Skorton earned
his bachelor’s degrees in psychology in 1970, and
his medical degree in 1974, both from Northwestern University. He’s married to Robin L. Davison, former professor of
anatomy and cell biology and radiation oncology here
at the University of Iowa. Dr. Davison is still very
active in her research and is currently the Andrew
Dixon White professor of molecular physiology
at Cornell University. She’s also an adjunct
professor of medicine at Georgetown University. Please join me in welcoming
the 13th Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. Javid Day Skorton.
(crowd laughing) I did it again!
(crowd applauding) (crowd cheering) – Thank you. Thank you, that wraps
up our talk for tonight. We’ll get on to the Q-and-A. Thank you, John, for that
wonderful introduction, such as it was.
(crowd laughing) And most importantly,
for inviting Robin and me back to Iowa City and
the University of Iowa, and John, I also thank you,
over the years and decades, for being such a good
friend and colleague, not only of mine but of everyone, and being such a fantastic leader for this world-beating graduate
college, John, thank you. (crowd applauding) President and Mrs. Harold,
friends, colleagues, it’s good to be back. (crowd applauding) I lived here and was at
the University of Iowa longer than I’ve been anywhere else. In fact, my talk tonight
stems nearly entirely from my experiences here at the U of I. The U of I is an exemplar of valuing the entire range
of scholarly disciplines, from astrophysics to poetry. The value of combining
STEM and the liberal arts, including the arts, humanities,
and social sciences, has had a major influence on my life, as an educator, an administrator, and as a student, which, for me, is a joyful lifetime profession. And I know that being back here also brings fond memories back to Robin. She spent her entire early
academic career here, from her bachelor’s degree in psychology to her master’s and a PhD,
to a post-doctoral fellowship at the Cardiovascular Research Institute and the Center for Hypertension Genomics, and then she joined the
University of Iowa faculty and taught neuroscience and
cardiovascular physiology and genomics to medical,
dental, and graduate students while pursuing her
groundbreaking research. Iowa girl from Cedar Rapids makes good. (crowd applauding) Many of the experiences
I recall most fondly from my U of I years relate
to the terrific mentors whom I was privileged to know. Let’s start with Francois Abboud, who took a gamble to hire me
and was a supportive mentor and colleague and friend. And then there was Melvin Marcus. My first grant proposal
was submitted to Mel for an internal review, and
his very succinct response, don’t like it, don’t like it at all. (crowd laughing) Every student should have the benefit of such straightforward counsel. How much I miss the late Mel Marcus. And Richard and Linda Kerber. Now that’s University of Iowa royalty. Dick taught me much of what
I know about echocardiography and cardiac physiology,
and I miss him so dearly. Linda taught me how much one can learn from studying the past
and about the importance of precise and thoughtful use of language. Alan Mark, my first boss
in the cardiology division of the Department of Medicine. And Frank Conroy. As many of you know, Frank
headed the writer’s workshop with passion and distinction. He taught me so much about
literature and life and music. We jammed together, performing in a group that included such luminaries
as John Rapson and Dan Moore. He referred to our motley
crew in his wonderful and occasionally acerbic
way as Close Enough. And folks, he wasn’t talking
about Rapson and Moore, he was talking about me.
(crowd laughing) Frank’s passions were
his family, literature, jazz, and the piano, I miss him as well. Larry Mahoney, my longtime
practice partner and mentor, one of the greatest
things that has happened to pediatric cardiology, ever. And Steve Flagel, Steve
ostensibly worked for me, but in fact taught me a great
deal about digital technology and more important the discipline needed to do first-rate research. And there were many more
at the University of Iowa who guided me along the way, through counsel and by
their own life examples. The beautiful thing, you
know, about mentoring is that it is as much about
personal growth as it is about intellectual, academic,
and professional growth. It enriches a balanced education through real-life experiences, and it can give people,
particularly young people, the confidence and wisdom to navigate the ups and downs
of this life as it evolves. Benjamin Franklin said, “Tell me and I forget,
teach me and I may remember, “involve me and I learn.” And good advice for all of us can always be found in the
writings of Doctor Seuss. “Think left and think right
and think low and think high, “oh, the thinks you can
think up if only you try.” Okay, quotes from Ben Franklin
and Doctor Seuss, enough. Robin and I don’t get
back to Iowa City as often as we would like but today,
we enjoyed enormously, and in fact were really blown away, while touring three of
the magnificent buildings that opened just a few months ago. The visual arts building is stunning. Any university or community would be proud to boast such an architectural gem, but it is especially
impressive in this setting. No wonder it has won Interior
Design best of the year award, in Architect’s Newspaper,
building of the year award. It was a pleasure to see
students, professors, and artists learning
from and with each other, exercising their creativity that will result in
inspiring works of art. Voxman Music Hall was equally exciting. Its concert hall provides
students with an extraordinary setting to learn the
fine art of performing. Blake, Damani, and Steve, thank you again for the
superb performance earlier. What a group, what a campus,
what a music program. (crowd applauding) And Hancher Auditorium
brings back so many memories. This beautiful facility pays
homage to its predecessor but in a modern and beautiful way that will serve the university community and the people of Iowa
with a compelling array of programming for many
generations to come. Yes, the misfortune of the flood coupled with generations
of accumulated wisdom allowed you, with a clean slate, to develop what is certainly
one of the most impressive, functional, and inspiring
performing arts centers anywhere. While equally prioritizing
the STEM disciplines, including the health science campus, as well as the arts and the humanities, the University of Iowa master plan exemplifies the longstanding tradition of a balanced education here in Iowa City. In 1922, as you know, the
University began to accept creative work in lieu of
theses for graduate degrees in the fine and performing arts and was first to offer a master’s degree in the writer’s workshop
beginning in 1936. Iowa was a pioneer in recognizing
the role of creativity and the imagination play in all learning. Emily Dickinson captured the
essence of this relationship when she wrote the possible’s slow fuse is lit by the imagination. The brilliant career of Stamatios Krimigis demonstrates this connection. Tom, who received his MS here studying under James Van Allen, was awarded the Smithsonian
National Air and Space Museum’s Lifetime Achievement trophy
in 2015 for contributing extensively to our knowledge
of the solar system. Reflecting on his
research of the universe, Tom recently said, “If I could go anywhere “in the solar system,
I would go to Europa, “and sit on the ice and look
at the majesty of the planet “Jupiter and the volcanoes
of Io in the distance.” Exploring space is the
frontier for this century and this generation. In terms of challenging our imaginations and answering those fundamental questions of are we alone and how did life evolve? There’s no other way to address those. Incidentally, James Van Allen himself won the Smithsonian Trophy for
Lifetime Achievement in 2006. At age 92, he was not able
to accept his award in person at the ceremony but spoke to
the audience via telephone from Iowa City. Few in that audience
that day will ever forget his typically thoughtful
and candid comments. I have spent a professional lifetime working in the biomedical
sciences and clinical medicine. Of course, I recognize and I celebrate the extraordinary contributions
of science to our lives, our prosperity, and the
promise of our future. But a life in science has taught me that science will not be enough to solve the world’s thorniest challenges. For that, we need the broad and deep value of the liberal arts for
two overriding reasons. They hold inherent value as the best way to understand ourselves, our world, and what it means to be fully human, and they provide practical contributions to solving our most difficult
and persistent problems. The theme of my talk today
is that STEM and the arts, humanities, and social sciences
actually nourish each other. Faculty here at the University
of Iowa taught me long ago that there is great value
in integrating education in these seemingly disparate
sets of disciplines. Decades later, this
assertion of a reciprocal and mutual benefits of the two cultures is becoming more widely recognized. I have the honor of chairing
a National Academy study seeking to examine the evidence
behind such an assertion and to see if such integration actually improves educational and career outcomes. Our committee is in the
data gathering phase and we will have conclusions
and recommendations to share with you in coming months. But there are some
interesting observations already to consider. Michigan State University
professor of physiology and MacArthur fellow Robert Root-Bernstein made interesting
observations about creativity in science-related professions. He found that Nobel laureate scientists are more likely to be involved
in the arts and humanities than their non-laureate colleagues. Twice as many are likely to be musicians, at least seven times more
likely to be sculptors, and at least 12 times more
likely to write poetry. Rita Dove, who received her MFA here at the University of Iowa, and later became poet
laureate of the United States, described the link between imagination and scientific achievement: “Without imagination, we can go nowhere, “and imagination is not
restricted to the arts. “Every scientist I have
met who has been a success “has had to imagine.” Albert Einstein may have
been the most famous example of someone whose creativity in science was spurred in part by
the arts and humanities. It is said that while
working on his general theory of relativity, he often played
a Mozart sonata on his violin to get the creative juices flowing. Einstein once noted: “The
theory of relativity occurred “to me by intuition, “and music is the driving
force behind this intuition.” Nearly 40 million Americans
in the labor force create for a living in some capacity. Professor and author Richard Florida has dubbed them the creative class. According to a comprehensive survey by Americans for the Arts, the arts generated over $135 billion of direct economic activity in 2010 and created more than four
million full-time jobs, and according to the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences, nearly four million
additional jobs were held by people employed in
the humanities sector. Many people, of course, accept the idea that the arts and
humanities can create jobs or complement math and
science in practical ways, but the arts and the
humanities are enormously more than servants to the sciences. They enrich us in profound ways, they are essential to who
we are as individuals, and as fellow inhabitants of
a shared and fragile world. There is a reason we
hang art on our walls, venture out to hear live
music, visit museums, and watch theatrical productions. There is a reason we connect so strongly with the words of Shakespeare,
Angelou, and Springsteen. The reason is that we
learn fundamental truths about ourselves and others
from the arts and humanities. For as long as we have been able, humans have used philosophy, literature, religion, art, music,
history, and languages to understand and interpret
a confusing world. The arts, humanities, and social sciences improve our ability to think critically and analyze and synthesize
and communicate. New York Times columnist
David Brooks wrote: “If the study of the conscious mind “highlights the importance
of reason and analysis, “study of the unconscious mind “highlights the importance
of passions and perception.” Mr. Brooks served with me and many others on the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences Commission on the Humanities
and the Social Sciences. Our report, Heart of the Matter, recommends three major goals for balancing the curriculum
in the schools of America. They are: educate
Americans in the knowledge, skills, and understanding they will need to thrive in a 21st-century democracy, foster a society that is
innovative, competitive, and strong, and equip
the nation for leadership in an interconnected world. In delivering the John and
Mary Lou Lehoczky Lecture on the Humanities and Social
Sciences at Carnegie Mellon, former Supreme Court Justice David Souter, another member of our commission, said, “What the humanities and social
sciences have to teach us “is the variety of truth,
the provisional nature “of conclusions, the
sources of illumination “from people of other backgrounds
and other perspectives,” he said, “and the magic that can occur “when they are combined.” The magic, Justice Souter describes, occurs when students are given the tools, assets, and resources to
stretch their imaginations, consider other viewpoints, and embrace new and
enlightening experiences. Our educational activities
at the Smithsonian are based in part on the
magic of combining art and artifacts with the
stories they represent. Often, when I visit a gallery on my own, I observe young people,
say, on a field trip. You can actually see
when the spark occurs, when the young person realizes the meaning of an exhibition or object,
and relates directly to it. When young people are inspired, they connect the present
experience with a possible future. A five-year-old girl was asked
recently what she had learned on her visit to the National
Air and Space Museum. She replied, “I learned that
I want to be an astronaut.” The magic does not end when young people reach high school or college. Drew Gilpin Faust, President
of Harvard University, said: “Look to the past to
help create the future. “Look to science and to poetry. “Combine innovation and interpretation. “We need the best of both, “and it is universities
that best provide them.” When I was teaching
clinical bedside medicine, I often encouraged my medical
students to read literature, often, the works of
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, to hone their medical
diagnostic abilities. Doyle, as you may know, was a physician, and the scientific method
and its application to medical diagnosis,
was subtly represented in those works as crime solving. Other instructors use art. Harvard medical students take a course called Training the Eye that
includes studying paintings at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. In addition to instilling empathy, the program emphasizes
the role creativity plays in scientific observation. The integration of
science and the humanities has also been a hallmark
of the Smithsonian, which, by the way, was
established in 1846, just several months before
the University of Iowa. The Smithsonian is most famous, of course, for the treasures we hold, 154 million artifacts,
specimens, and works of art. A friend of Robin and mine
summarized the Smithsonian’s collections in just four words:
everything under the sun. (crowd laughing) But it is the research and
scholarship and creative activity conducted by Smithsonian
scientists and curators and art and cultural
historians and anthropologists and other scholars that
provides the foundation for everything we do at the Smithsonian. It is through programs and exhibitions that the Smithsonian seeks to engage and inspire over 20 million people who visit our museums and
the National Zoo annually. The integration of the arts, humanities, and the STEM subjects occurs naturally through the exhibition development process which combines art and
design with content. One of our objectives
is to make exhibitions more relevant and
thought-provoking to all Americans and to our valued and most
welcomed international visitors. A recent exhibition, for example, was entitled the Art of the Koran, and it was at the Freer Sackler museums. This exhibition featured
60 of the rarest religious artifacts ever assembled
from Afghanistan to Turkey. Most of them had never
traveled outside Turkey. It offered fascinating
historical, cultural, and religious context, while
interpreting the manuscripts as compelling and beautiful works of art. At a time when cultural differences are provoking division and conflict, the exhibition opened the
door to understanding. The feedback we received
from visitors was gratifying. In September, we opened
the National Museum of African American History and Culture. Its exhibitions, created
under the brilliant leadership of Director Lonnie Bunch,
comprise an eloquent and powerful narrative central to all
of our national identity. Since its opening, the museum
has drawn capacity crowds that already number over
a million since September and is completely booked
well into the future. The social and political
discord we hear about in the news every day reminds us that racism is not a thing of the past, but we hope this museum will help us advance public conversation and somehow help our
country begin to heal. Among the many stories
told in the National Museum of African American History and Culture is the story of Dr. William Montague Cobb. An anthropologist, Dr. Cobb
undertook extensive research, including demographic analysis, to disprove the insidious
myth that African Americans were somehow intellectually inferior. We tell this story through
the scientific instruments that Dr. Cobb used in his experiments. For adults, especially
those for whom this museum attempts to fulfill lifelong hopes, the story of Dr. Cobb
resonates and instills pride. For children, it emphasizes
the value of science, to us individually, and to humanity. Dr. Cobb was an activist
who also served as president for the NAACP. When I arrived at the Smithsonian, I was most familiar with the museums and the huge public
interface they enabled, but I was surprised by the
amount of research underway and we’re developing some activities to share more of it with the public. The sharing of the fruits of research and perhaps more important
the process of research is sorely needed today when
the enormous lack of trust of the public in so many
types of institutions extends, unfortunately, to the sciences. In fields from vaccination
to climate change, carefully wrought scientific consensus is rejected in some quarters. Next month, over Earth Day weekend, we at the Smithsonian
will hold a three day Earth Optimism Summit that
will focus on positive efforts to mitigate the challenges
facing our planet. Presenters and program participants
will include scientists and environmentalists and artists and media and philanthropists and civic leaders and
developers and other experts. The summit recognizes
that healing our planet will not come about through
the work of scientists alone, but as a collective effort by
people from many professions, nationalities, cultural backgrounds, all motivated by common
beliefs and aspirations. This summit and other Smithsonian programs underscore the value of a
balanced approach to learning. We are developing plans
to increase the impact of our national and international reach to create platforms for
Smithsonian scholars and their partners in
the great universities to make their voices
heard and engage others in conversations about matters
of importance to our world. We hope to build on our research activity in so many countries and are
exploring, as Dr. Keller said, our first exhibition space outside the US in conjunction with the Victorian
Albert Museum in London. One approach to extending reach
beyond the walls of a museum or any university, of course, is through the use of digital technology. We began digitization of our
collections 40 years ago, greatly accelerated recently, and this democratization
of the collections will expose people around the world to the treasures we hold in
trust for the American people. And we are placing a stronger
and stronger emphasis on the arts to demonstrate
the power and impact that visual, performing,
and other art forms have on our lives. Throughout my life,
professionally and personally, I have benefited from having interests and friends and mentors
in a broad range of areas, and was encouraged by
my parents and teachers to pursue both scientific
and artistic interests, and I have been fortunate to find myself in academic environments,
UCLA, Northwestern, the U of I, Cornell,
and now the Smithsonian, that foster a balanced approach and acknowledge the benefits
of humanities studies in making us better
thinkers and better citizens and ultimately better people. Now, understandably,
many parents and teachers and boards of education and
elected officials believe that the best interest in
students at all grade levels and of our country are better served by focusing predominantly
on the STEM disciplines, but as an individual, an educator, I have seen and experienced the benefits of an integrated education, and I have learned in
listening to writers, artists, philosophers, and other humanists, that we are at risk as a people if we do not acknowledge
and advocate and work hard to ensure that STEM
studies and liberal arts continue to be emphasized as enhancing and nourishing one another. Our world, of course,
faces daunting challenges. Environmental issues, social conflict, economic insecurity, and closer to home, we live in a country starkly divided. Differences in our political
views, religious beliefs, ethnic backgrounds, and
economic status are widespread, but for all the challenges that we face, the 21st century has also brought unprecedented opportunities, particularly in the ways we
communicate and interact. According to Manuel Castells, professor and the Wallis Annenberg Chair in Communication, Tech, and Society at the University of Southern California, we live in a world in which humankind is almost entirely connected. Rather than promote isolation
and withdrawal from society, he believes, the Internet
increases sociability, civic engagement, and
the intensity of family and friendship relationships
in all cultures. Now, the challenges and
issues human beings face on a global scale, in our
nation, and in our communities can be mitigated through the
bonding of people and groups and the exchange of ideas
that are done, of course, optimally person-to-person, but that technology also can support. The evolving development
of technology itself offers ample evidence of
the symbiotic relationship between STEM and the
humanities disciplines. There are countless examples
as far back as the 19th century of visionaries, inventors,
and innovators who have relied on science, technology,
the arts, and design to imagine and advance the
development of computers and technology, and still do. Shortly before his death, Steve Jobs said, “Technology alone is not enough. “It’s technology married
with liberal arts, “married with the humanities,
that yields us the result “that makes our hearts sing.” In the classrooms, labs, and
halls of the University of Iowa and the galleries and research
areas of the Smithsonian, science, tech, the arts,
and humanities coexist. Most of us accept and embrace
an integrated approach to learning, but for
others, there is skepticism, particularly with regard to
the value of an education broadened with the liberal arts subjects. Too often, the humanities and the arts are relegated to a secondary role, especially when public money is at stake in local, state, and federal budgets. What can we do as students and citizens to promote the value of
a balanced education? And most of all, what can we
do to embrace the richness of a full and examined life? As advocates, we can
argue for the benefits of a liberal education, a
sense of social responsibility, open-mindedness, and
interest in other cultures, as well as practical
skills in communication, problem solving, and the
ability to apply knowledge in our lives and careers. We can express our support
for libraries, museums, live performances, and
cultural activities. In our own day-to-day lives,
we can practice the habits and embrace the pursuits
that humanities teach us. We can read even more. Reading requires our full attention. It stimulates our thought processes and encourages us all to
come up with new ideas. Reading inspires creativity. It can motivate us. Reading triggers feelings. We can listen to others, particularly those of a
different perspective. I recently heard about a young woman who hosted a dinner in her home for four people who
voted for President Trump and four who voted for Secretary Clinton. She came up with the idea for the dinner to which she invited
people she did not know the morning after the election. Opening the door to different perspectives was an act of courage and curiosity, qualities inspired by humanistic beliefs. We can make time for
reflection and thought. Exposure to liberal arts helps
us consider and understand the human experience, yes,
but we need to give ourselves time to gather and process our thoughts despite the press and the
seduction of the very technology that I was lauding a few minutes ago. Make time to live in the present moment and take yourself a leisurely
walk along the Iowa River. Avail yourself of cultural opportunities. Both the Smithsonian and
the University of Iowa offer exhibitions to explore,
works of art to study, and performances to enjoy. Sometimes we don’t realize
how valued these activities are to us until we almost lose them. Being here tonight, in this gorgeously reimagined auditorium, we are reminded of a poem by Jim Galvin of the Writer’s Workshop. It’s called Bringing Down the House. When they tore down the
auditorium, the facade went first, rebar snarling out like
a nest of centipedes. When they tore down the auditorium, excavators and backhoes
roamed like sci-fi mantises, munching with hydraulic
jaws as they hunted and gathered and devoured. When they tore down the auditorium, percussive wrecking balls kept time. As I thought of years of
arts performing magics, I saw Baryshnikov twice, heard Pavarotti, Marsalis, and Ma, heard Bobby McFerrin, Bernstein, the Kronos Quartet, the stage was a realm of
light, sound, and dance, applause came in tsunamis,
all in Iowa City, Iowa. Then came the real flood. Mud took the stage, mold
took a curtain call. They tore down the
auditorium but I remember Wynton Marsalis gave a master class to three or four Iowa high
school white bread jazz combos. When Marsalis walked in, they throttled their horns and saxophones, and who could blame them? They jammed. He taught them how to listen
to each other and respond. Did you hear the B-flat I played, and why didn’t you do something about it? And you can’t get up on a stage and then act like you don’t belong here. He took questions, they
had a few shy ones, then one girl whose parents
probably couldn’t afford that night’s performance
asked the best question ever. Would you play something for us? By way of an answer, he
laid down an impossible Dizzy Gillespie riff. A stunned silence
forestalled the applause, a silence such as that
which over-awes the din of tearing down the auditorium. Robin and I are thrilled
to be back in the beautiful and reborn Hancher Auditorium, and we thank you for bringing
us back in the family. Thank you.
(crowd applauding) Why wreck a nice, long, dry
speech with a boring Q-and-A? Why do that?
(crowd laughing) – I thought I was asking the questions. – [David] You’re paying the
hotel room, so go, buddy. – I tell you. David, thanks again
for being here tonight, and it’s just wonderful to have
you and Robin back with us. We’ve been looking forward to your visit for quite some time, as you know, but we never could have predicted that, just how important and
timely your words would be, so I thought you and I
could take a moment to chat. – Well, let me just say one more thing before we get onto whatever
terrible stuff you’re going to try to do to me in
front of these nice people. This means more to
Robin and me than we can possibly tell you, and
today has reminded us again just a handful of the many
reasons why this town, this state, and this
university mean so much to us, so it’s great to be here. And since we’re getting along so well, let’s just call it a day,
drop these microphones, (crowd laughing)
and get out of here. – No, we’re getting our money’s
worth out of you, sorry. – Okay, wow, that really hurts. – So I guess one of the
first and foremost questions on everybody’s mind including ours is, what do you miss the most
about living in Iowa City? – Let’s see, now, Robin’s family is here, I would say the in-laws, I
mean, the in-laws for sure. (crowd laughing)
I mean, (crowd applauding)
yeah, okay. You know, I’ve got to tell
you, when it comes to in-laws, pal, you’ve got to get
some points on the board, every chance, every chance. So the in-laws are numbers one through 10. I’d say there’s a certain feeling, there’s a certain almost
spiritual, intellectual ferment in this community. You live here all the time, you don’t maybe notice it anymore, but Robin, it’s palpable, isn’t it? It’s palpable, you can feel the ferment, the intellectual drive of the place. It’s really like no place we’ve ever been and we’ve been a lot of places. I just miss the atmosphere,
the environment, the ambience, the climate. Not the weather climate, it sucks. (crowd laughing) – So you and Robin clearly
had a tremendous impact on this campus throughout your careers, and your leadership and
your connections you made on this campus help form
the foundation of many of the successes that we
share today, including my own, and I often remind people that when you were the Vice
President of Research, we interacted in a number
of different capacities, and it was your encouragement
that convinced me to pursue the position
of the Graduate Dean, so thank you.
– Let me just interrupt you for a second here.
(crowd laughing) He’s painting this sort of,
you know, fairy tale idea of our relationship.
(John and audience laughing) Let me just tell you, friends,
how this really worked out. – [John] Uh oh. – John and I have been eating
every day since we were kids, we’ve been eating every day,
and we like it, we like eating, and we’ve gotten used to it, and we both, we sort of
had a little weight issue, and so because we cared
so much about each other, we each found out what the
other one’s weakness was. His was donuts, mine was M&Ms. And yes, when the other
one was out of the office, the friend would drop the
other person’s weakness on his desk.
(crowd laughing) And so we went on an
extensive weight loss regimen, which after one month, we declared victory because we only gained 10 pounds. (crowd laughing) But anyway, as you were. – Yes, sir. So it’s been–
– Remember? – Oh, I remember. Yeah, we decided we
were going to take walks to destress over lunch
and that lasted one day. (David and audience laughing) – [David] It was a heck of a walk, though. – Yeah. So it’s clearly fair to
say that your leadership is characterized by your investment
in personal relationships. And in your recent campus
interview in the Iowa Now, you highlighted the importance of universities created with people. You shared some of that tonight. Could you share a little
bit about your perspective on leveraging the
institution’s human resources to accomplish a shared goal, especially as you’ve emphasized
the importance of listening to each other and learning about
our different perspectives? – Okay, well, internally and externally,
I’ll answer it two ways. Internally, with respect, we can never do enough crosstalk, cross-fertilization, and
communication across the campus. Even a relatively compact campus and a relatively compact town, in my days at the University of Iowa, there was still the people
you run into all the time, the people you ran into once in a while, the people you run into never. And so anything that you can
do under President Harold’s leadership and others to rethink how you run into each
other, at the water cooler, so to speak, is very important
for internal communication. For external communication, we have to just break out of the idea that doing our work for each other, for our professional
colleagues in whatever field, that that’s enough. That’s necessary but not sufficient to remind a bruised country,
bruised for decades, that we need to understand better what the sciences, arts,
and humanities bring. Hate to plug your wife
but when Robin was here, she created a course
called Survival Skills for a Research Career, you
may remember that course. – I remember.
– And the idea was to take people who
were training intensively in a scientific discipline,
whatever that discipline might have been, and
to bring to them wisdom and experience in areas
that they would need for a successful research career beyond the enormous amount of knowledge they were trying to
absorb in graduate school. And what happened was, as I recall, the communications aspect of that, how to communicate difficult
science to the public, how to communicate difficult
science to general science colleagues who were not
in your direct discipline, that was enormously popular, and not only did the grad students come, for whom she ostensibly
developed the course, but I remember faculty
coming from other departments because such a thing didn’t happen. So internal emphasis on crosstalking, and external emphasis on
learning how to communicate not instead of but beyond our
scientific or artistic limits, I think those are the important ways. – Tonight, in your presentation, you specifically highlighted
the role that the faculty play at the core of the university. So you and I came of
an age a long time ago, when the role of the faculty
was a little bit more of a solitary role. How do you see the role
of the faculty member now evolving into this interconnected and interdisciplinary world?
– Yeah, such a great question. I’ll thank you not to
ask me great questions and put me in a spot like
this in front of these people. But okay, this is the last
chance for this kind of thing, or I’m getting the donuts.
(John and audience laughing) Well, the interdisciplinarity,
which, gosh, we talk about so much it’s like the
biggest cliche imaginable, well, some cliches are
there because they’re true, and so much of what we do is a team sport. And I’ll tell you one example I saw today. So thanks to you, we
had this fabulous tour through Voxman, and there are all of
these acoustically perfect and isolated spaces,
where students and faculty can play their hearts out a
few inches from each other but because of the technology
and the thinking that went into the construction of the building, not interrupt or, you know,
confuse what’s going on one area to another. And in all of those areas,
there’s an electronic connection possible, just literally
by the push of a button or click of a mouse or
whatever the heck it is where you can record
to a central facility. So in that one corner of the university, there is the collaboration between different aspects of music, and different aspects of engineering, different aspects of architecture, and all of those elements work together to produce this really,
really magical place, and there’s many, many
other examples of that. Of course, in the sciences,
the life sciences, the physical and mathematical sciences, perhaps with the exception
of mathematical theory, they’re mostly team sports now,
they’re mostly team sports. So I would say that we
are becoming increasingly interdisciplinary, again,
when you get to a certain age, as you know, you like to preach, and nobody listens anymore
but you feel better about it. (crowd laughing)
And I do remind us that, however much we develop team
sports in these disciplines, it’s also important to
take our own counsel and turn our phones off once in a while, turn our computers off once in a while, and just sort of think
about what we’re doing. – So how do we instill these
principles in our graduate students who are going to become
the future of our society? – Well, that’s a tough
question because, you know, I’m not talking for you,
but I’m talking for me. Many of my friends and I
didn’t do such a great job leaving the world for our kids and those of us who have grandkids. So I’ve tried over the years really hard, and often not successfully, to try to draw out young
people’s own solutions to problems rather than give
them my ideas for solutions because so many of our ideas
didn’t actually work out exactly as we hoped they would. I’m reminded of my first book, which Steve Flate will
remember, it was 1986, it was called Computer
Imaging and Image Processing, edited with the University of
Iowa professor Steve Collins. It was a bit critical success.
(crowd laughing) The, I’m not sure why
you’re laughing, but anyway, I remember one review
in particular that said, everybody in the field
should read this book, this groundbreaking work. Well, let me tell you,
nobody bought this puppy except my uncle Leo and my mom. (crowd laughing) And my mom bought it because
that was bragging rights, my uncle Leo bought it to
hold a door open in his house. (crowd laughing) And so based on this and
many other experiences, I don’t think I have any
particular wisdom to impart in general to young people
except for a process issue. And the process issue I
try to tell them about is that humility and
understanding the possibility that one may be wrong no matter
how heartfelt the conviction is one of the greatest
tools we can learn in life because that humility and
lack of over-confidence can pave the way for us
turning on our receive mode and turning off our send mode long
enough to learn something. (crowd applauding) Now, that doesn’t go for married life. (crowd laughing) For married life, the best
way to go on for decades and remain healthy is for us
only to have a receive mode, correct?
(crowd laughing) – I’m not going there, my
wife’s sitting out there. – I’ll ask her later, I’ll ask her later. – So David, you said that
putting together a museum, a museum exhibition,
naturally requires the union of arts and sciences, like
we see at the Smithsonian. So what’s this process
like, and is that a model that we can use when we think
about how to communicate and engage the public in our
creative work and our research? – Well, it comes about through academic freedom. A curator or a scientist deciding that a certain problem or possibility for communication, or an artist sitting in her studio decides that her view of the world, her perspective is a little different, or she notices something
in our environment and our ambience that maybe
somebody else didn’t notice, and the courage of bringing
that work of art forward or curating from a wide
ocean of such works of art is brought to the fore as a possibility. Costs are estimated, funds are raised, space is sought, and then it’s
brought out to the public. What we could do better in the Smithsonian is once having done that, to find out how the public feels about it. At the Smithsonian, because
our 18 and our 19 museums are free and we’re open 364 days a year, when I heard that, by the way, I thought my birthday
would be the off day, (crowd laughing)
but Robin said, I think her exact quote was,
“No, dodo, it’s Christmas.” So that’s a little name she
calls me, sort of a pet name. (crowd laughing)
And anyway. – [John] No, you’re not
extinct, by the way. (David and audience laughing) – Hang around, pal, it’ll
happen, it’ll happen. And so we, what were we talking about? (John and audience laughing) – Do you want me just to move on? – Yeah, okay, let’s move on. – All right, so–
– By the way, for those of you who are
going to make a living droning like I do, if you
don’t like a question, one, go off on a tangent, and number two, plead ignorance
that you don’t remember what the question was. Your questioner will
be so aggravated at you that he’ll want to, or she
will want to just shut you down and move to the next question, it works. (crowd laughing) – Okay, so you mentioned
that the Smithsonian has nearly 154 million pieces
in its collection which you’re working to digitize
and disseminate to the public. So do you have a favorite piece? – People ask me that all the time and I actually do have a favorite piece. And I have to digress for a moment and tell you about my dad. (crowd laughing)
My dad, what did I tell you, what did I tell you? My dad passed away now these 37 years next year, was an immigrant from what is now Belarus, from what was then
either Russia or Poland, depending on the weekend, and he came to the United States via two and a half years in Cuba. And when he came to the United States, he became a naturalized citizen, and he wanted to do
everything Americans do. So I was born in Milwaukee. At age nine, we decided to
move to the promised land, aka Los Angeles, and this was 18 months after the Brooklyn Dodgers
moved to Chavez Ravine in LA. We went there and my dad said, pal, he used to call me pal, he said, we’re going to do
everything Americans do. And I said, dad, I am an
American, I was born here, and he said, he said something
in a sort of a Russian accent to the effect that when
he needed my opinion, he would give it to me, and we used to go to Chavez Ravine, and he wanted to watch Sandy Koufax pitch, a religious Jewish gentleman
who was a hell of a lefthander, who one time missed his World Series game because it fell on Yom Kippur, you remember that.
– I remember that. – And so my dad would say,
on a non-Sabbath night, he would say, pal, let’s jump in the car, we’re going to go watch
a Jewish lefthander strike out a lot of guys.
(crowd laughing) And so when I went to the Smithsonian, Robin and I were shown around
all these backroom places and just amazing, just amazing things, they pulled out a Sandy Koufax mitt. And I teared up, you know,
and I said, can I look at it, they said, of course you can look at it, can I touch it, and they gave
me a pair of white gloves and said, you can touch
it, and the curator said, yeah, you’re the secretary,
this is your artifact, and I said, may I put my hand
in it, and he said, uh, no. (crowd laughing) And I said, I said, well, let me just remind you,
I am the secretary, and he said, a curator,
analogy to a faculty, what faculty members tell when
they speak truth to power, he said, that’s really cool, you can’t put your hand in this. And so I think about that a
lot, and a couple of days ago, Robin will have to remind me,
I think it was two days ago, I gave the periodic Congressional
testimony to a committee, an oversight committee,
and they asked, you know, they love to see artifacts
when you go to Congress and we brought a bunch of
baseball things because, you know, opening day, and we
brought Sandy Koufax’ mitt, and I looked at it again and
so that’s my favorite artifact. But when I’m at the
Smithsonian, I’m surrounded by thousands of people who
work there all the time, who have their own favorites. I say, I love all my children. (crowd laughing) – That’s why you’re in
the position you’re in. – I guess. – So David, you left us,
through your remark tonight, with four actionable pieces of advice to incorporate into our lives: read, listen, reflect, and avail ourselves to
different cultural experiences. So could you leave us tonight
with a recommended reading or viewing or visiting list? – This is a pop fly,
okay, this is a pop fly, not a line drive, but being here, this is easy note to end on. Read anything written at
the University of Iowa, read anything on a book put together with paper from the Iowa
Center for the Book, see any performance at Hancher Auditorium, and you will be better
than the day before. – Cool.
(crowd applauding) So speaking of paper from
the Center for the Book, if you go to Washington DC,
you might want to observe the Charters of Freedom that are there, and one of our own faculty
members, Tim Barrett, who is in the Center for the Book, was commissioned to make the paper, he’s an internationally
famous paper maker, he was commissioned to make the paper that is behind the Charters of Freedom. So when you go there and
reflect on those documents, remember that that’s an Iowa product that’s underneath those charters. – Can I just say one thing? I know you’re going to bring up this, and go on and on like you always do, (crowd laughing) but speaking of going on and on, I’ve just got to tell you this experience. I ran into Tim here tonight, who was generous enough of spirit to come and say hi to Robin and me. So I’m visiting the Library of Congress, not long after I got to Washington, and they were showing me down
in the innards of the building the book conservators area, and they were showing me some book that they were just delicately, lovingly, putting back together again, and I said, you know, I’ve got a
crazy question to ask you, to one of the conservators,
she said, sure, anything, as she rolled her eyes, and I said, you know, I worked for many
years and lived in a place that had a really fabulous
Center for the Book, and before I could finish the sentence, she said, would you come over here? And she said, you mean this center, and she had a whole column of flat drawers marked UICB, for UI Center for the Book, where they were taking
Tim Barrett’s papers and fixing books at the
Library of Congress. And, you know, that just
made me just about cry. Now, being a bureaucrat,
I didn’t cry, I said, the only thing a bureaucrat can say, I taught Tim every damn thing he knows. (audience laughing) You’ve got to do it, right?
(crowd applauding) – And no, she didn’t let
you touch that paper, either, probably.
– That’s right. – So finally, David, you’ve often referred to the Smithsonian as the nation’s attic or whatever the one remark
that you made tonight, as I can’t remember
off the top of my head, and Chuck Swanson, who
is our executive director of Hancher refers to Hancher as the University of Iowa’s and
the community’s living room. It’s been such a special
honor to welcome you back here to our campus living room tonight. Thank you for sharing your insights and your inspiring vision with us tonight, and to the audience, thank you, everyone, for being here tonight and
sharing in this celebration. Thank you for your attendance tonight. (crowd applauding)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *